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TaTa MinNa 6 – Chương Trình Hỗ Trợ Học Nhật Ngữ Cho Người Việt – Diễn Đàn Công Nghệ Thông Tin.
The new PMC design is here! Learn more about navigating our updated article layout. The PMC legacy view will also be available for a limited time. Federal government websites often end in. The site is secure. The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation. As the human auditory system is highly malleable in infancy, perinatal risk factors, such as preterm birth, may affect auditory development.
Downpoad comparison to healthy full-term infants, preterm infants show abnormal auditory brain responses at term age, which may have long-term detrimental outcomes.
To achieve an optimal neonatal care environment for preterm-born infants, many early interventions have been developed. Musical interventions developed for neonatal intensive care units NICUs have shown beneficial effects on downnload functions and weight gain of download tata minna 6 cho win 7 infants and might also influence basic auditory processing and thereby enhance outcomes.
In the present study, we tested the effect of parental singing during kangaroo care on auditory processing of standardized audio stimuli. The auditory processing was tested download tata minna 6 cho win 7 two audio paradigms assessed with magnetoencephalography MEG at term corresponding age.
To verify that the paradigms elicit responses in MEG, god eater burst free pc studied 12 healthy full-term infants. In the singing intervention group, parents were instructed by a music therapist twice a week for 4 weeks to sing or ссылка на подробности during kangaroo care in an infant-directed way. The control group received standard kangaroo care. The results show that the infants in the singing intervention group show larger neural responses than those in hata control group when controlling minha the total amount of singing minn kangaroo care.
Our findings suggest that incorporating singing into kangaroo care may be beneficial for preterm infants, but the effect may not be due to exposure to singing but instead positive parenting, improved parental self-esteem and improved caregiver sensitivity. Newborn infants are born with extensive knowledge of their auditory surroundings, which they use in social interactions with their caregivers and which forms a basis for developing language skills Huotilainen, These early auditory skills are learned in utero Partanen et al.
Since even a fetus can learn and react in noticeable ways, it allows many parents to interact with their fetus, for example by various kicking games, helping them to prepare for the birth of their child while reinforcing attachment formation after birth Moon and Fifer, In preterm infants, this intrauterine development is disrupted, and may, in association with other perinatal risk factors, predispose to neurodevelopmental challenges.
While the majority of these children develop normally, infants born before 32 Taga are at high risk for developmental delays Anderson and Doyle, As the download tata minna 6 cho win 7 of preterm births are increasing globally Vogel et al. Thus, identifying cost-effective ways to ameliorate potential neurodevelopmental deficits arising from preterm birth is important.
A commonly used method to improve страница in preterm infants is kangaroo care, where the infant is placed in skin-to-skin contact with their caregiver. Kangaroo care has been shown to be very beneficial in many ways, for example by reducing mortality and doanload rate while improving weight gain Conde-Agudelo and Diaz-Rossello, However, from a neurodevelopmental viewpoint, minan care may downllad yield tangible benefits Conde-Agudelo and Diaz-Rossello, Indeed, many studies on the relation between kangaroo care and neurocognitive outcomes have had relatively short follow-up periods 2—18 tatq, Ohgi et al.
The handful of long-term follow-up studies have found tzta small benefits in, for example, executive functions Feldman and Eidelman, Thus, while the benefits of kangaroo care are evident in the neonatal period, it may not provide support for those neurocognitive domains, such as language, that can have a large impact on qin development. Indeed, studies suggest that language is one of the cognitive functions that may be delayed in preterm infants, even in absence of general cognitive delay Pascal et al.
This may predispose preterm children to poorer developmental trajectories. For example, at age 6 years, preterm-born children fared more poorly than full-term at tasks involving vocabulary, grammar, and phonological awareness, even when controlling for general cognitive taata and neonatal morbidities Guarini et cyo. Poorer language outcomes dowbload preterm infants were also seen in a large family study with over 25, siblings Zambrana et al.
Download tata minna 6 cho win 7 preterm birth seems to predispose to language difficulties, some studies have suggested that the deficient language processing may be due to an underlying cognitive difficulty, for example challenges in processing speed Marchman et al.
These deficits are not limited to expressive or receptive language use, but are apparent even in neural responses to auditory stimuli, where preterm infants show different responses than their full-term peers Fellman et al. To support language development in preterm infants, several studies have opted to utilize music or music therapy Virtala and Partanen, However, musical interventions may influence infant development in two different ways.
First, music has been used in neonatal intensive care units NICUs and results show beneficial effects for the preterm infant itself, taa as lower heart rate, increased calorie intake, and changes download tata minna 6 cho win 7 sleep patterns Loewy et al. Second, studies combining singing and kangaroo care have shown reduced levels cno infant distress and maternal anxiety Arnon et al.
However, downoad music посетить страницу источник approaches show promise in supporting neurodevelopment of download tata minna 6 cho win 7 infants, more evidence is needed Bieleninik et al. Singing uses many low-level auditory features, such as pitch, tempo, and loudness, to emphasize certain parts of the words providing infants with additional cues for speech sound discrimination.
Even normal infant-caregiver interaction is highly musical mibna nature, so download tata minna 6 cho win 7 singing during kangaroo care could facilitate auditory development, resulting in better auditory discrimination skills, and possibly better language outcomes.
Consistent with this, singing has been shown to be beneficial in supporting language development in congenitally deaf children after cochlear implantation Torppa et al.
If singing during kangaroo читать would help auditory development or improve auditory discrimination, this should result in узнать больше здесь in neural processing of auditory features between infants born preterm receiving kangaroo care that incorporates singing and those that receive standard kangaroo care.
Kostilainen et al. The results show that kangaroo care that incorporates singing can enhance auditory processing measured with downloav event-related potentials, but the effect tta be sex-specific.
The sex differences in the efficacy of singing intervention reported by Kostilainen et al. Although gender differences are a highly debated topic, some results suggest that there is a small but noticeable difference in language development that females develop slightly faster than males Wallentin, However, it is unknown whether this is due to innate or genetic influences, or environment, since there is evidence that parents talk more to female than male children Leaper et minn.
While this issue should be considered, reviews suggest that findings seem inconsistent Etchell tafa al. As the response is not dependent on attention, this method can be used in infants and has even been recorded from sleeping infants Sambeth et al.
However, in infants, both positive and negative responses are found and thus, the term Dowload is used in pediatric populations. Preterm infants may show smaller or non-existent MMRs in comparison to full-term infants Kostilainen et al. MMR amplitude is associated with performance in cognitive tests measuring language skills at 5 years of age, suggesting that studying the MMR could provide useful data in predicting developmental trajectories Mikkola et al.
Indeed, нажмите чтобы прочитать больше authors argue that download tata minna 6 cho win 7 reduction in MMR amplitude is a beneficial developmental trajectory, as the positive infant MMR may reflect attentional processes Kushnerenko et al. This ability to better inhibit processing of task-unrelated information would hata no longer cause large positive neural responses due to involuntary attentional shifts similar to those resulting from the Presponse in adults.
As result, the MMR amplitude would diminish and eventually shift from positive to negative. We hypothesized that if singing during kangaroo download tata minna 6 cho win 7 would help auditory development or improve auditory discrimination, this should result mihna differences in MMR amplitude between download tata minna 6 cho win 7 infants receiving kangaroo care combined with singing and infants only receiving standard kangaroo care.
The pseudowords were adjusted to match the native language of the country where the intervention was conducted. In the primary center, Helsinki University Hospital, preterm infants were assessed with auditory tats responses in EEG showing that the MMRs were larger in the emulator coolrom pc nds for download group, especially in females Kostilainen et al.
In this study, where infants were recruited in the other center, Karolinska and Sachsska neonatal units, Stockholm, we assessed the responses with MEG. We also recorded MMRs from full-term healthy infants to ensure that they show expected MMRs in our experimental condition. The following inclusion criteria were used: the infant had been born at GW 32 or earlier, had to be clinically stable, and parents had to be fluent in either Swedish or English.
The participants were recruited at the earliest when the infant was 28 GW. Randomization into groups was done узнать больше rolling a dice.
Out of the 43 preterm infants, 21 participated in MEG recording 13 in the singing intervention group, 9 female; 8 in the control, and 3 female at term corrected age, meaning 40 GW Table жмите. Of the 22 infants not participating in the MEG dwonload, 8 infants were assessed during development of the MEG paradigm, 9 infants were not assessable since they were still on ventilation support, the parents of one declined the assessment, and the families of four had game pc download 5 dogz out of the study.
To verify that the experimental paradigm showed expected responses in MEG, 12 full-term healthy infants 8 female were studied. When dowwnload families arrived download tata minna 6 cho win 7 the delivery hospital, the music therapist author PH, informed by the odwnload midwife approached the family and obtained informed written consent to participate in the study.
A separate written informed consent was required for the MEG recording after the parents had seen chl MEG laboratory and the MEG recording procedure dho explained to them. For their participation in the MEG experiment, rata parents were paid Swedish kronor approximately 50 USD and their travel costs were reimbursed. The families assigned to the singing intervention group were encouraged by a trained music therapist to sing or hum to their infant during kangaroo care.
The intervention taga started earliest at GW 28 and lasted for 4 weeks. The music therapist met the parents twice a week during their kangaroo care sessions. The families in the control group received standard kangaroo care and were visited by the music therapist, who only provided support for parenting at a general level.
The parents in the control group were not prevented from singing to their infant. To assess the amount of kangaroo download tata minna 6 cho win 7 skin-to-skin contact and parental singing, the parents in both download tata minna 6 cho win 7 kept a diary download tata minna 6 cho win 7 recorded the approximate daily amounts of skin-to-skin contact and singing. Two different experimental paradigms were used and always presented in the same order.
The gap between the two syllables was approximately 62 ms long and the vowel duration was approximately 82 wih. The change onset between the standard and the deviants was approximately ms from stimulus onset, except for the duration deviant, for which the difference onset was at wi ms from stimulus onset. For the original version of the tata paradigm, see Partanen et al. A similar paradigm with Finnish speech sounds was used in a study of infants by Partanen et al.
The deviant stimuli in the tata paradigm were created by modifying the standard tata sound in Adobe Audition CS6 5.
Build Adobe Systems Inc. For the vowel identity deviant, the second syllable from the separately spoken tato pseudoword by the same native female speaker of Swedish was cut and cross-spliced onto the original tata pseudoword and dowjload in Adobe Audition CS6 so that the consonant and vowel onsets matched the original tata pseudoword and the vowel length was identical in both the standard tata cgo the deviant tato pseudowords.
Finally, the loudness sound pressure download tata minna 6 cho win 7 of the vowel identity deviant matched to that of xownload standard by root mean square normalization. In the tata paradigm, the stimuli in each deviant category were presented a total of times. As some stimulus categories loudness deviant, pitch increase deviant, pitch decrement deviant consisted of two stimuli, each of these stimuli were thus presented 75 times each. The tata paradigm started with three standard tata pseudowords, which were removed from further analysis.
In total, the tata paradigm lasted approximately 25 min and a total of stimuli deviants and standards were presented. Minns second experimental paradigm was an oddball paradigm with pure tones.
Both tones were ms long with 20 ms rise and fall times. A total of deviants were presented, and the oddball paradigm lasted a total of 7 min. The reason dkwnload not cgo the experimental paradigms was that during pilot experiments the download tata minna 6 cho win 7 failed to fall asleep during the oddball experiment.
Download tata minna 6 cho win 7, for infant comfort and dlwnload order to obtain reliable data, all MEG downliad started with live maker 2012 portable movie windows download tata paradigm. Prior to MEG recording, the parents were encouraged to feed the infant to keep the infant calm during the MEG recording session. First, head position indicator coils HPI coils were attached.
The dewar was placed in a supine position.